Latest Technology News and Recent Inventions

Get updates from the latest technology news and recent inventions in world. Find information about latest technology trends, news, current inventions in the field of robotics, computers technology, space science, gadgets and many more. Know about various recent inventions such as, Robot with human expressions, Mystery of Black Holes, 4G Technology, 3-D Processor chips, latest phones, Operating System that will take place of Windows, Evidences of water on Mars.......and many other, that I will update regularly. This lens is my effort of presenting all such latest information here in this lens.

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4G Technology

Fourth Generation (4G) mobiles

4G also called as Fourth-Generation Communications System, is a term used to describe the next step in wireless communications. A 4G system can provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be provided to users on an “Anytime, Anywhere” basis. The data transfer rates are also much higher than previous generations.

The main objectives of 4G are:

1)4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system.

2)This will be capable of providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors.

3)It can provide premium quality and high security.

4)4G offer all types of services at an affordable cost.

4G is developed to provide high quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications such as wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging, Video Chat, Mobile TV, High definition TV content, DVB, minimal service like voice and data, and other streaming services.

4G technology allow high-quality smooth video transmission. It will enable fast downloading of full-length songs or music pieces in real time.

The business and popularity of 4Gmobiles is predicted to be very vast. On an average, by 2009, this 4Gmobile market will be over $400B and it will dominate the wireless communications, and its converged system will replace most conventional wireless infrastructure.

Data Rates For 4G:

The downloading speed for mobile Internet connections is from 9.6 kbit/s for 2G cellular at present. However, in actual use the data rates are usually slower, especially in crowded areas, or when there is congestion in network.

4G mobile data transmission rates are planned to be up to 20 megabits per second which means that it will be about 10-20 times faster than standard ASDL services.

In terms of connection seeds, 4G will be about 200 times faster than present 2G mobile data rates, and about 10 times faster than 3G broadband mobile. 3G data rates are currently 2Mbit/sec, which is very fast compared to 2G’s 9.6Kbit/sec.

New Blackberry Curve

BLACKBERRY LATEST MOBILE PHONE:

Blackberry Curve (8300) is one of the most popular latest phones since its launch. But since its launch, mobile industry has experienced many advances in technology. So to keep them update wit latest technology Blackberry family has launched its latest edition called BLACKBERRY BOLD.

WHAT’S NEW ?

Blackberry Bold is a blend of greatest features of Windows Mobile and the quality and reliability specific to Blackberry brand.

With the help of new Blackberry Bold now it is possible to edit your Microsoft Word and PowerPoint documents. These updates can be moved over onto main PC or Mac. So now you can update and improve speeches and presentations during practice runs or when still on the road.


Blackberry Bold

SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING:

Blackberry Bold is one of the most media-friendly release yet with the inclusion of Wifi which allows you to access the Internet from virtually millions of locations worldwide (the GPS and mapping functions can help you locate a site). And even outside of hot-spot areas, the Blackberry Bold utilizes HSDPA technology to access nearly 3G download speeds.

In new Blackberry Bold streaming videos are also available, complementing the mp3 player. And with the Media Sync application, you can easily transfer media files from itunes to your handset very easily.

Vulture - Unmanned Aircraft

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of United States is working to develop an unmanned aircraft that is able to stay in air for a period of 5 years at a time. It is one of the most recent inventions of world.

Officials of DARPA has revealed that this aircraft will be known as VULTURE due to its Persistent Pseudo-Satellite Capability . It means that this aircraft will be able to fly over a single area, communicating or performing analysis for years at a time.

Major Obstacles in Project:

Even this project looks appealing to many of you, but there are some serious problems or you can say obstacles in achieving this project.

1) First challenge in front of designers is to figure out some Way to Supply Power to this aircraft during long missions.

2) Another problem is that this aircraft will carry a 1000 pound (450 kg) payload in winds at an altitude of 60,000 to 90,000 feet.

3) Designers have also to sort out the problems regarding Deterioration of Materials during their long-time exposure to stratospheric flight.
In addition to this there may be many challenges during designing of this aircraft.

Daniel Newman: The Man Behind VULTURE

Daniel Newman is the Project Manger of this ambitious project of NASA. In his words: “We want to completely change the paradigm of how we think of aircraft. Aviation has a perfect record – we’ve never left one up there. We will attempt to break that record”. It looks that its time to get out of the traditional “launch – recover – maintain – launch cycle of aircrafts.”

Concept Behind Vulture:

Basically Aircrafts operates just like satellites, but the major difference is that these are not regulated by orbital mechanics. You can understand Vulture as a Pseudo-Satellite, which operates in the stratosphere and not in the low Earth orbit. This would provide a 65 dB upgrading in communications capability and will increase onboard sensor resolution.


Vulture

When Will it Become a Reality?

Well, right now NASA has not mentioned any time table when the aircraft will be ready. But for now NASA has worked on the probable design of Vulture (see picture).

Forget Windows: Midori is coming

WINDOWS is a name that has ruled the whole computer world since its first launch in November 1985. Since then it is like a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

With many advanced versions of Windows available today such as Windows XP, Windows Vista, it is the most used operating system in the world. In 2010, Microsoft is going to launch WINDOWS 2007, but now here is time to experience a yet another technology of operating systems.

Yes, MICROSOFT is working on a new generation of operating systems called Cloud-Based Operating System and rumors are there that MIDORI will be their first such operating system, which will replace Windows fully from computer map.

WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE

MIDORI is an offshoot of Microsoft Research’s Singularity operating system. In this the tools and libraries are completely managed code. MIDORI is designed to run directly on native hardware (x86, x64 and ARM), will be hosted on the Windows Hyper-V hypervisor, or even be hosted by a Windows process.

MIDORI can be also seen as MICROSOFT’S answer those competitors who are applying “Virtualization” as a mean to solving issues within contemporary computing.

The main idea behind MIDORI is to develop a lightweight portable OS which can be mated easily to lots of various applications.

IMPORTANCE OF MIDORI

For knowing the importance of MIDORI you have to think about, how an operating system is loaded on a computer. Actually operating system is loaded onto a hard disk physically located on that machine. In this way, the operating system is tied very tightly to that hardware. As Windows is dependent on hardware, it might face opposition from contemporary ways of working because people are extremely mobile in using different devices in order get diverse information.

Due to this trend installing different applications on a single computer may led to different compatibility issues whenever the machine require updating. The new operating system will solve these problems by the concept of Virtualizing. This will solve problems such as widespread security vulnerabilities, unexpected interactions among different applications, failures caused by errant extensions, plug-ins, and drivers and many more.

ERIC RUDDER, Senior Vice President, Technical Strategy

The importance of this project for MICROSOFT can be understood by the fact that company choose Eric Rudder , former head of Microsoft’s server and tools business and a key member of Chairman Bill Gates’ faction of the company, to handle it.

WHEN WILL IT BE LAUNCHED

Just Wait and See. Microsoft has not declared any such date about launching of MIDORI, but there are rumors that this project is in incubation phase.

Draganflyer X6

Draganflyer X6 is an advanced helicopter that can be operated remotely without any pilot. It is designed mainly to carry wireless video cameras and still cameras. The Draganflyer X6 helicopter can be operated very easily with its hand held controller.

The Draganflyer X6 helicopter is based on a unique 6-rotor design that has been under development since early 2006. It uses 11 sensors and thousands of lines of code to self-stabilize during flight which makes it easier to fly than any other helicopter in its class. The on-board software of Draganflyer X6 is developed after extensive testing and development. Draganflyer X6 helicopter is a revolution in the field of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

It can be used very efficiently for various applications and it is ideal for spying on the enemy in a safe and reliable manner.

MAJOR FIELDS OF APPLICATIONS

The new Draganflyer X6 can be used in various field such as Industrial Constructions, Government Applications and Educational needs.

1)Industrial Use:

Draganflyer X6 can be used very efficiently in Bridge Constructions, Building Construction, Pipeline / Hydro-Transmission Line Inspection, Road Construction. With the help of this aircraft you can get videos and images of any site from various angels.

Equipped with a high resolution still camera (with remote zoom, shutter control and tilt) it can capture great images. And its high definition video recorder can record videos very efficiently. It has a range of 500 meters and have a flight time of 20 to 30 minutes.

It is designed specifically with easy controlling system for ease of use it. So, it is easy to fly, needs very minimal training, and provides an extremely stable aerial platform from where you can get photographs and video. It’s small size and portability makes it suitable to carry it to any construction site and have it ready to fly in minutes.

2)Government Applications:

Draganflyer X6 can be used in many government applications such as Law Enforcement, Fire, Emergency Measures, Wildlife Management, Environment and Transportation. You can use this advanced machine for Disaster Response, Conservation Enforcement, Crime Scene Investigation, Crowd Control, Explosive Disposal Unit, Search and Rescue Missions, Traffic Congestion Control, Criminal Intelligence Applications, Fire Damage Assessment, Fire Scene Management any many more.

3)Educational Applications:

Draganflyer X6 is very useful in educational applications such as Advanced RC Flight Research, Aerial Archeology, Environmental Assessment, and Geological Exploration.

FEATURES AT A GLANCE:

Draganflyer X6 is unique in many terms. It has some very advanced features that make it different and more efficient then other remote controlled helicopters. Some of these features are:

1)Six Rotor Co-Axial Configuration

2)GPS Facility

3)Carbon Fiber Folding Frame

4)Handheld Flight Controller

5)Advanced Power System

6)High Damage Tolerance

7)Specially manufactured Cases

8)Engineered for Safety

9)Electronic Flight Stability

10)Telemetry Software

11)Wireless Video System

12)Anti-Vibration Camera Mount

13)HD Digital Video Camera

14)Low Light Camera

15)Thermal Infrared Camera

These various features of Draganflyer X6 makes it very useful and efficient in its work.

NEXI - Robot with facial expressions

A latest invention by MIT Media Lab is a new robot that is able to show various facial expressions such as ‘slanting its eyebrows in anger’, or ‘raise them in surprise’, and show a wide assortment of facial expressions while communicating with people.

This latest achievement in the field of Robotics is named NEXI as it is framed as the next generation robots which is aimed for a range of applications for personal robots and human-robot teamwork.

DESIGNING

The head and face of NEXI were designed by Xitome Design which is a innovative designing and development company that specializes in robotic design and development. The expressive robotics started with a neck mechanism sporting 4 degrees of freedom (DoF) at the base, plus pan-tilt-yaw of the head itself. The mechanism has been constructed to time the movements so they mimic human speed. The face of NEXI has been specially designed to use gaze, eyebrows, eyelids and an articulate mandible which helps in expressing a wide range of different emotions.

The chassis of NEXI is also advanced. It has been developed by the Laboratory for Perceptual Robotics UMASS (University of Massachusetts), Amherst. This chassis is based on the uBot5 mobile manipulator. The mobile base can balance dynamically on two wheels. The arms of NEXI can pick up a weight of up to 10 pounds and the plastic covering of the chassis can detect any kind of human touch.

CYNTHIA BREAZEAL: HEAD OF THE PROJECT

This project was headed by Media Lab’s Cynthia Breazeal, a well known robotics expert famous for earlier expressive robots such as Kismet. She is an Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at the MIT. She named her new product as an MDS (mobile, dextrous, social) robot.


Nexi Robot

FEATURES OF NEXI

Except a wide range of facial expressions, Nexi has many other features. It has self-balancing wheels like the Segway transporter, to ultimately ride on. Currently it uses an additional set of supportive wheels to operate as a statically stable platform in its early stage of development. It has hands which can be used to manipulate objects, eyes (video cameras), ears (an array of microphones), and a 3-D infrared camera and laser rangefinder which support real-time tracking of objects, people and voices as well as indoor navigation.

Black Hole Mystery Solved

Black holes are an object of research and mystery for the whole scientific community from decades. Many researchers are working day and night to explore the mysteries of black holes. In this series, a recent invention by Yale University Astrophysicist revels the fact that, There is a upper limit of the mass of any black hole. This research has been also published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

WHAT ARE BLACK HOLES?

As most of you are aware BLACK HOLE is a region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, not even electromagnetic radiation can escape from it. Dur to this black holes can not be seen (as they absorbs light radiations) but can only be experienced by their ultra strong gravitational pull. That’s why they are named as BLACK HOLE.. They continue to grow in size by absorbing any matter that comes in range of their gravitational field.

HOW MUCH THEY CAN GROW?

Till now it was not sure that what can be maximum size of a black hole. These black holes are now known to exist throughout the Universe and the largest and most massive are at the centers of the largest galaxies. These “ultra-massive” black holes have reported to have mass about One Billion Times that of our own Sun.


Black Hole

CONCEPT OF UPPER MASS LIMIT

According to the new research by Priyamvada Natarajan, an Associate Professor of Astronomy and Physics at Yale University and a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, it has been proved, that even the biggest of these Black Holes can’t keep growing forever. Instead, they appear to curb their own growth – once they accumulate about 10 billion times the mass of the Sun.


Black Hole

THEORY BEHIND THIS RESEARCH

Normally Black Holes continue to accumulate mass by absorbing matter from neighboring gas, dust and stars. But according to new research by Priyamvada Natarajan, that it is possible only to a certain limit, irrespective of the position of black hole. The reason behind this is that, “Eventually these Black Holes reach the point when they radiate so much energy as they consume their surroundings that they end up interfering with the very gas supply that feeds them, which may interrupt nearby star formation.”

EXPERIMENT BY PRIYAMVADA NATARAJAN

Natarajan used existing Optical and X-ray Data of these Ultra-Massive Black Holes to show that, in order for those various observations to be consistent, the black holes must essentially stop at some point in their evolution. This helped her to prove this fact that these black holes can not grow indefinitely in mass and there is some upper mass limit of black holes.

Intelligent Helicopters

Scientist at STANFORD have developed an Artificial Intelligence System that enables Robotic Helicopters to teach themselves to fly difficult stunts by watching other helicopters perform the same maneuvers. It can result in development of autonomous helicopter than can perform a complete airshow of complex stunts on its own. It is one of most recent example of latest technology inventions .

THE TEAM

This project is directed under Professor Andrew Ng who directed the research of their graduate students- Pieter Abbeel, Adam Coates, Timothy Hunter and Morgan Quigley. The stunts performed by such intelligent helicopters are far more difficult then any other computer controlled helicopters. They have developed various learning algorithms for these Helicopters which helps them to learn by themselves by just observing other expert helicopters.

EXPERIMENT

The experiment was is an important demonstration of Apprenticeship Learning in which robots learn by observing an expert. Stanford’s artificial intelligence system learned how to fly by “watching” the four-foot-long helicopters flown by expert radio control pilot Garett Oku.

This advanced helicopter can learn and perform actions such as traveling flips, rolls, loops with pirouettes, stall-turns with pirouettes, a knife-edge, an Immelmann, a slapper, an inverted tail slide and a hurricane, described as a “fast backward funnel.”

IMPORTANCE

Previous autonomous helicopters were able to fly stunts by simply replaying the exact finger movements of an expert pilot using the joy sticks on the helicopter’s remote controller. But the major problem was that uncontrollable variables such as gusting winds due to which this is not very advance. To solve this problem, the researchers had Oku and other pilots fly entire airshow routines and every movement of the helicopter was recorded.

As Oku repeated a maneuver several times, the trajectory of the helicopter inevitably varied slightly with each flight. At this point, the learning algorithms created by Ng’s team were able to discern the ideal trajectory the pilot was seeking. Thus the autonomous helicopter learned to fly the routine better and more consistently.

ADVANCED INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

This advanced and intelligent contains some instrumentation mounted on the helicopter and some on the ground. These instrumentations monitor the position, direction, orientation, velocity, acceleration and spin of the helicopter in several dimensions. A ground-based computer crunches the data, makes quick calculations and beams new flight directions to the helicopter via radio 20 times per second. Some of the important instruments it uses are Accelerometers, Gyroscopes and Magnetometers.

These advance intelligent helicopters are a new generation of very robust, very reliable helicopter which can fly just as their human counterparts.

Mysteries of Corals Resolved

Recently researchers have uncovered a gene in corals that responds to day/night cycles, which provides some tantalizing clues into how symbiotic corals work together with their plankton partners.

WHAT ARE CORALS?

Corals are fascinating animals in term that they form the largest biological constructions in the world. They exist as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically in colonies of many identical individuals. The group includes the important reef builders that are found in tropical oceans, which secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.


Corals

Interesting fact about this is, that sprawling coral reefs cover less than 0.2 % of the seafloor yet provide habitats for more than 30% of marine life. In shallow waters that don’t have abundant food, corals have developed a close relationship with small photosynthetic critters called dinoflagellates.

DINOFLAGELLATES

The Dinoflagellates are Photosynthetic Creatures that use sunlight to produce energy for the coral, which in turn use that energy to construct mineralized skeletons for protection. This mineral production is known as Coral Calcification. This is closely tied with the day/night cycle and molecular mechanism behind this synchronization is mysterious till date.


DINOFLAGELLATES

AURELIE MOYA: THE MIND BEHIND RESEARCH

Aurelie Moya and colleagues during their research have succeeded in finding the mystery behind this synchronization of Dinoflagellates. They have characterized the first coral gene that responds to the light cycle They named this gene as STPCA.

This gene makes an enzyme that converts Carbon Dioxide to Bicarbonate (baking soda) and is twice as active at night compared to daytime.

WHAT THEY HAVE FOUND?

The researchers have found that this enzyme concentrates in the watery layer right under the calcified skeleton. Moya and colleagues determined that STPCA becomes more active at night to cope with acid buildup.

The calcification process requires many hydrogen atoms, which during the day can be removed by photosynthesis. But at night, however, hydrogen accumulates which increases the acidity of the coral and to cope up with this increased acidity STPCA creates extra bicarbonate as a buffer to prevent acid damage.

Scerets behind Memories

Scientists at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) and the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel have discovered the process
through which memories are made and then recalled. These scientists have recorded that How individual brain cells calls up a memory?, thus revealing where in the brain a specific memory is stored and how the brain is able to recreate it.


Neurons

Dr. ITZHAK FRIED

Dr. Itzhak Fried, Senior Study Suthor and a UCLA Professor of Neurosurgery with his colleagues recorded the activity of hundreds of individual neurons making memories in the brains of 13 epilepsy patients being treated surgically at UCLA Medical Center. Their research detail has been reported in current online edition of the Journal Science.

EXPERIMENT

Surgeons at UCLA Medical Center placed electrodes in the patients’ brains to locate the origin of their seizures before surgical treatment which is a standard procedure in such cases. Dr. Fried used same electrodes to record the neuron activity as memories were being formed.

During the experiment patients were shown several video clips of short duration, including such things as landmarks and people, along with other clips of Jerry Seinfeld, Tom Cruise, “Simpsons” character Homer Simpson and others. As the patients watched these clips, researchers recorded the activity of many neurons in the Hippocampus and a nearby region known the Entorhinal Cortex that responded strongly to individual clips.

Few minutes after watching these clips, the patients were asked to recall whatever clips came to mind. During this recalling process these patients were not prompted to recall any specific clips,” but to use “free recall’ which means, whatever popped into their heads.

At this point researchers found that the same neurons that had responded earlier to a specific clip fired strongly a second or two before the subject reported recalling that clip. These neurons did not fire, however,when other clips were recalled. By observing this researchers found that which clip a patient was recalling before the patient announced it.

During this experiment Dr. Fried noted that the single neurons that were recorded as they fired were not acting alone but were part of a much larger memory circuit of hundreds of thousands of cells caught in the act of responding to the clips.

SIGNIFICANCE

This research is significant in the fact that it confirms for the first time that spontaneous memories arise through the activity of the very same neurons that fired when the memory was first being made. This link between reactivation of neurons in the Hippocampus and conscious recall of past experience has been suspected and theorized for sometime, but the study now provides direct evidence for this.

So we can say that, Reliving past experience in our memory is the resurrection of neuronal activity from the past.

FUNDING

The research was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, as well as the Israel Science Foundation and the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

3-Dimensional Computer Processor

Scientist at University of Rochesterb have developed a new generation of Computer Processors. These processors are based on 3-Dimensional Circuits in contrary to 2-Dimensional Circuits of today.

This can be said as the next major advance in computer processors technology. The latest 3-D processor is running at 1.4 gigahertz in the labs of University.

PAST ATTEMPTS VS LATEST RESEARCH

In the past attempts of making 3-D chips, scientist were just making a stack of regular processors. But at University of Rochesterb it was designed and built specifically to optimize all key processing functions vertically, through multiple layers of processors, the same way ordinary chips optimize functions horizontally.

This design means that every tasks such as Synchronicity, Power Distribution, and Long-Distance Signaling are all fully functioning in three dimensions for the first time.

EBY FRIEDMAN: THE MAN BEHIND 3-D CHIPS

Eby Friedman and his students has designed this chip, which uses many of the tricks of regular processors, but also accounts for different impedances that might occur from chip to chip, different operating speeds, and different power requirements. According to Eby Friedman, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rochester and faculty director of the pro of the processor says:- “I call it a cube now, because it’s not just a chip anymore. This is the way computing is going to have to be done in the future. When the chips are flush against each other, they can do things you could never do with a regular 2D chip”


3-D Chip

TODAYS INTEGRATED CHIPS AND PROBLEMS

The problem with today’s technology of integrated circuits is that, beyond a limit it is impossible to pack more chips next to each other which limits the capabilities of future processors. So number of integrated circuit designers anticipate someday expanding into the third dimension, stacking transistors on top of each other.

IMPORTANCE

Vertical Expansion of chips has lots of technical difficulties and the only solution to this is to design a 3-D chip where all the layers interact like a single system. According to Friedman: Getting all three levels of the 3-D chip to act in harmony is like trying to devise a traffic control system for the entire United States-and then layering two more United States above the first and somehow getting every bit of traffic from any point on any level to its destination on any other level-while simultaneously coordinating the traffic of millions of other drivers.
Now if we replace the two United States layers to something more complicated like China and India where the driving laws and roads are quite different, and the complexity and challenge of designing a single control system to work in any chip begins to become apparent.

The 3-D Chip is essentially an entire circuit board folded up into a tiny package. With this technology the chips inside something like an iPod could be compacted to a tenth their current size with ten times the speed.

Amazing Event - Two Planets Collided

Astronomers at UCLA, Tennessee State University and the California Institute of Technology have reported that two terrestrial planets orbiting a mature sun-like star some 300 light-years from Earth recently suffered a violent collision.”

Astronomer are now writing a report on this event in December issue of the Astrophysical Journal.


Collision

ACCORDING TO ASTRONOMERS:

According to Benjamin Zuckerman, (Professor of physics and astronomy in UCLA), this collision was just like if Earth and Venus collided with each other,”. It is the first time that Astronomers have seen such collision.
Co-author of the report and astronomer in Tennessee State University, Dr. Gregory Henry says, “If any life was present on either planet, the massive collision would have wiped out everything in a matter of minutes – the ultimate extinction event.” After that collision a massive disk of infrared-emitting dust has encircled the star.

HOW THE REASEARCH CAME OUT:

Zuckerman, Henry and Michael Muno, were studying a star BD+20307 located in the constellation Aries and surrounded by a 1 million times more dust than is orbiting our sun. These astronomers gathered X-ray data using the orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and brightness data from one of TSU’s automated telescopes in southern Arizona, hoping to measure the age of the star.

They thought that BD+20 307 was relatively young, a few hundred million years old , with the massive dust ring which signals the final stages in the formation of the star’s planetary system. But Alycia Weinberger of Carnegie Institution of Washington announced that BD+20 307 is actually a close binary star means two stars orbiting around their common center of mass.

The new spectroscopic data collected after this announcement confirmed that BD+20 307 is composed of two stars, both very similar in mass, temperature and size to our own sun and they orbit about their common center of mass every 3.42 days. Further research also shown that these stars are much more older than estimated before. Instead of few hundred million years these stars are several billion years old.

The planetary collision in BD+20 307 was not observed directly but rather was inferred from the extraordinary quantity of dust particles that orbit the binary pair at about the same distance as Earth and Venus are from our sun. Henry said. “If this dust does indeed point to the presence of terrestrial planets, then this represents the first known example of planets of any mass in orbit around a close binary star.”

BD+20 307: THE EARLIER THOUGHTS

Zuckerman and colleagues first reported in the journal Nature in July 2005 that BD+20 307, then still thought to be a single star, was surrounded by more warm orbiting dust than any other sun-like star known to astronomers. The dust is orbiting the binary system very closely, where Earth-like planets are most likely to be and where dust typically cannot survive long. Small dust particles get pushed away by stellar radiation, while larger pieces get reduced to dust in collisions within the disk and are then whisked away.

Thus, the dust-forming collision near BD+20 307 must have taken place rather recently, probably within the past few hundred thousand years and perhaps much more recently, the astronomers said.

NOW THE TWO IMPORTANT QUESTION IS:

After this all research the two most important questions before astronomers are:

1.) How do planetary orbits become destabilized in such an old, mature system?

2) Could such a collision happen in our own solar system?

According to some esteemed astronomers, there is small probability for collisions of Mercury with Earth or Venus sometime in the next billion years or more.


Collision

According to Zuckerman, major collisions have occurred in our solar system’s in past. It is believed by many astronomers that our moon was formed from the collision of two planetary embryos – the young Earth and a body about the size of Mars – a crash which created tremendous debris, some of which condensed to form the moon and some of which went into orbit around the young sun. The collision of an asteroid with Earth 65 million years ago, which ultimately resulted in the demise of dinosaurs is also an example of such collision.

FUNDING

This research is federally funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA and also by Tennessee State University and the state of Tennessee, through its Centers of Excellence program.

Robot adapted to Surrounding

Robotic Engineers at MIT Humanoid Robotics Group have developed a robot which is capable of adapting to situations so that it can assist people with everyday chores, everyday life and everyday work.

This next generation robot is named as DOMO. Engineers have placed cameras inside robot’s eyes which enables it to see and adapt to his surroundings. There are about 29 motors, equipped with computer chips run off a dozen computers that continuously update information.

MOTIVATION BEHIND DOMO

According to Aaron Edsinger, Engineer at MIT Humanoid Robotics Group, the main motivation behind developing DOMO is to develop a system that can assist people with everyday chores, everyday life, everyday work.

Robotic Engineers at MIT Humanoid Robotics Group have developed a robot which is capable of adapting to situations so that it can assist people with everyday chores, everyday life and everyday work.

DOMO can visually sense the surrounding conditions and adapt its functioning according to situations. For example, “it can learn about the size of an object and decide how to place it on a shelf.”

HOW IT IS DIFFERENT

Although there are many humanoid robots that are being developed around the world, DOMO is different as it can take the lead and adapt to a situation. Suppose “If the robot drops something in the middle of doing a task, it can stop and try and pick it up again and start over.”

This amazing quality makes it more helpful for human assistance.

HOW DOMO WORKS

1) Domo can see everything with the help of its large blue eyes that are equipped with powerful cameras that scan the entire surrounding.

2) These cameras then feed visual information to 12 computers that are used to analyze the input and decide the focusing point. This is a very important step, because for a robot to function in a real-world human environment, such as a kitchen, it must be able to ignore clutter and focus only on certain stimuli.

3) The visual system of DOMO is attuned to unexpected motion. For instance, locating human faces is critical for social interaction and people are often in motion.

4) When DOMO spots a motion that looks like a face, it locks its gaze onto it. Once Domo’s gaze is captured, the human can issue verbal commands such as “to find a shelf”.

5) The robot will scan the room for a shelf and then reach out a hand to touch the object to make sure it is really there.

6) If an object is then placed in its hand — such as a bag of coffee beans — the robot will reach up and place the object on the shelf.

adapting to situations so that it can assist people with everyday chores, everyday life and everyday work.

This next generation robot is named as DOMO. Engineers have placed cameras inside robot’s eyes which enables it to see and adapt to his surroundings. There are about 29 motors, equipped with computer chips run off a dozen computers that continuously update information.

MOTIVATION BEHIND DOMO

According to Aaron Edsinger, Engineer at MIT Humanoid Robotics Group, the main motivation behind developing DOMO is to develop a system that can assist people with everyday chores, everyday life, everyday work.

Robotic Engineers at MIT Humanoid Robotics Group have developed a robot which is capable of adapting to situations so that it can assist people with everyday chores, everyday life and everyday work.

IT CAN ALSO FEEL WEIGHT

DOMO can also observe the size and weight of any object that is placed in its hand. For this, DOMO wiggles it a little. This movement is very minor but is very important for the robot’s ability, which helps it to accurately place it on the shelf. DOMO is programmed such that it can learn about the size of an object by focusing on its tip, such as the cap of a water bottle. When the robot wiggles the tip back and forth, it can figure out how big the bottle is and can decide how to transfer it from hand to hand, or to place it on a shelf.

Domo can also sense when a human is touching it, thanks to springs in its arms, hands and neck that can sense force and response to it. If too much force is applied, the robot will voice its displeasure by saying….. “ouch!”

Amazing research on Learning of Human Beings

According to a recent research it has been proved that Eight-year-old children have a different learning strategy from twelve-year-olds and adults. While Eight-year-olds learn primarily from positive feedback such as ‘Well done!’, negative feedback ‘Got it wrong this time’ hardly effects their learning. Opposite to that Twelve-year-olds are better able to process negative feedback, and can use it to learn from their mistakes. Adults have the same ability but they do it more efficiently.

Cognitive Control in Brain

According to Dr. Eveline Crone, psychologist in Leiden Brain and Cognition Lab “Eight-year-olds respond disproportionately inaccurately to negative feedback. Dr. Crone and her colleagues performed a research named fMRI Research which shows that this difference can be observed particularly in the areas of the brain responsible for cognitive control, located in the Cerebral Cortex.

According to this research it has been demonstrated that, In children of eight and nine, these areas of the brain react strongly to positive feedback and scarcely respond at all to negative feedback. While in children of 12 and 13, and in adults, the opposite is the case. The ‘Control Centers’ in their brain are more strongly activated by negative feedback and much less by positive feedback.

Unique Three-Way Division

Generally in these types of experiments the comparison is generally made between children and adults. But in this experiment Dr. Crone and her colleagues made three different age groups: Children of 8 to 9 years | Children of 11 to 12 years and adults aged between 18 and 25 years. This three-way division had been made first time in such experiments.

Unexpected Results

Dr. Crone and their team were surprised at the results. According to Dr. Crone ‘We had expected that the brains of eight-year-olds would function in exactly the same way as the brains of twelve-year-olds, but maybe not quite so well. Children learn the whole time, so this new knowledge can have major consequences for people wanting to teach children: how can you best relay instructions to eight- and twelve-year-olds?’ ‘

Experiment

In the experiment, the children of both age groups and adults aged 18 to 25 were engaged in a computer task while they lay in the MRI scanner. The task was about to discover rules. If they did this correctly, a tick appeared on the screen, otherwise a cross appeared. During this test MRI scans captured records of which parts of the brain were activated.

Learning From Mistakes Is Difficult

After this experiment Dr. Crone was able to compare the fMRI results with the existing knowledge about child development. It has been known that “Young children respond better to reward than to punishment.” Therefore It is sure that, Learning from mistakes is more complex and difficult than carrying on in the same way as before.

Still Some Unanswered Questions

While this experiment is very significant regarding the development of children, there are some unanswered questions till now. Such as “This difference between eight- and twelve-year-olds the result of experience, or does it have to do with the way the brain develops? Some researchers say it a combination of the brain maturing and experience. May be some time in future this questions will be solved by any such research.

Water founded on Mars

Phoenix Mars Lander of NASA has recently detected snow fall from Martian Clouds. Soil experiment by this spacecraft has detected interaction between minerals on Mars Surface and liquid water. This new discovery has again raised questions on the presence of water on Mars.

Discovery By Phoenix

This discovery was possible through a large instrument place on Phoenix, which gathers knowledge about the interaction between atmosphere and surface on Mars. This instrument detected that there is snow from clouds at about 4 Kilometers (2.5 miles) above the landing site of Phoenix. However data collected, shows that the snow vaporizing before reaching the surface.

According to Jim Whiteway (Professor of New York University and Lead scientist for the Canadian-supplied Meteorological Station on Phoenix), “It I the first time that such scene is viewed on Mars”. Now the scientist are looking for the possibility that snow even reaches to Mars surface.

Other Major Discoveries

Experiment by Phoenix also yielded some other results, like Clues of Calcium Carbonate on Mars surface. Calcium Carbonate is a main composition of Chalk and most important thing is that formation of Calcium Carbonate is possible in the presence of liquid water only.
Peter Smith (Phoenix Principal Investigator of the University of Arizona, Tucson.) says, “”We are still collecting data and have lots of analysis ahead, but we are making good progress on the big questions we set out for ourselves.”

Key Aim of Phoenix Mission

The main aim of mission is to find the possibilities of favorable environment on Mars for survival of life. Phoenix landed on Mars surface on May 25, and it has already confirmed that there is a hard subsurface layer at its far northern site which contains water-ice.

Evidence of calcium carbonate in soil samples from trenches dug by the Phoenix robotic arm comes from two laboratory instruments called the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, and the wet chemistry laboratory of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

This discovery is a next step in confirming presence of water on Mars surface.


Phoenix Mars Lender

Experiments by TEGA and MECA

Evidence of calcium carbonate in soil samples from mars has been found out by the high temperature carbon di-oxide release while experimenting from TEGA. This temperature at which carbon dioxide releases matches the temperature known to decompose calcium carbonate and release carbon dioxide.


TEGA

The MECA evidence came from a buffering effect characteristic of calcium carbonate assessed in wet chemistry analysis of the soil. The measured concentration of calcium was exactly what would be expected for a solution buffered by calcium carbonate.


MECA

Mission Phoenix Extended

Originally Mission Phoenix was planned for three months duration, but its timeline has been extended and it is in its fifth month right now. But now it is facing decline in solar energy and it is expected that it will stop working before the end of 2008. Now the Phoenix team I trying to activate microphone on lander before power ceases.

Mission Lead and Responsibilities

The Phoenix mission is led by Peter Smith at the University of Arizona. Project management is handled by JPL with development partnership by Lockheed Martin in Denver. It is also getting international contributions Canadian Space Agency; University of Neuchatel, Switzerland;; Universities of Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark; Max Planck Institute, Germany; and Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.

Magnetic Field in a Distant Galaxy

A team of astronomers in California have detected magnetic field of a galaxy in far universe. These astronomers are studying the early universe by a powerful radio telescope. This measurement of magnetic field is as it was 6.5 billion years ago.

Prior Believes

Astronomers believe that magnetic fields within our own Milky Way and other galaxies near milky way, control the rate of star formation and the dynamics of interstellar gas. This magnetic field arose from a slow Dynamo Effect. This magnetic field in these galaxies grew very gradually as they evolved over 5 billion to 10 billion years to their current levels.

But now astronomers have reported that the magnetic field that they have measured in a distant Protogalaxy is at least 10 times greater than average value of Milky Way. This report has been published in October issue of Nature.

According to Arthur Wolfe (Professor of Physics at UC San Diego’s Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and head of the team), this research is a Complete Surprise. The magnetic field measured is at least an order of magnitude larger than the average value of the magnetic field detected in our own galaxy.

Powerful Radio Telescope and Useful Results

Astronomers used world’s largest fully steerable radio telescope for their study known as Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope located in Green Bank, West Virginia. This grand telescope is operated by National Radio Astronomy Observatory of National Science Foundation.

They studied DLA-3C286 protogalaxy located in a region of northern sky.
Magnetic Field outside our galaxy is very less know formerly. Prior to this study astronomers have measured magnetic field of only one nearby galaxy but that field was very weak.

A team of Swiss and American astronomers in July 17 issue of Nature magazine reported that they have found that magnetic field of about 20 distant galaxies were as when the universe was only a third of its current age as they are in the mature galaxies today. This study was done by using bright light from quasars.

Wolfe said those indirect measurements and his team’s latest direct measurement of a distant galaxy’s magnetic field “do not necessarily cast doubt on the leading theory of magnetic field generation, the mean-field-dynamo model, which predicts that the magnetic field strengths should be much weaker in galaxies in the cosmological past.”

Challenge to Dynamo Model

These results have put a challenge before Dynamo Model.

According to Arthur Wolfe “Rather the strong field that we detect is in gas with little if no star formation, and an interesting implication is that the presence of the magnetic fields is an important reason why star formation is very weak in these types of protogalaxies.”

Other Plausible Explanations

According to Wolfe their team has two other plausible explanations for their observations.

1) It may be possible that they are seeing a field toward the central regions of a massive galaxy, since magnetic fields are known to be larger towards the centers of nearby galaxies.

2) It is also possible that the field they have detected has been amplified by a shock wave generated by the collision between two galaxies.

But in either case it has been proved that magnetic fields may be important factors in the evolution of galaxies or we can also say that it is responsible for the low star formation rates detected throughout the gaseous progenitors of young galaxies in the early universe.

The Next Challenge

The next challenge in words of J. Xavier Prochaska, a team member and professor of astronomy at US Santa Cruz, is to observe galaxies throughout the universe.

Major Contributions in Research

Other team members included Regina Jorgenson (UCSD graduate student in physics); Carl Heiles (professor of astronomy at UC Berkeley); Timothy Robishaw (graduate student at Berkeley). This research was funded by National Science Foundation.

Lunar Lenders becomes more Intelligent

Advanced Lunar Lenders now will be able to automatically identify and navigate to a safe landing location, while detecting hazards in landing during final descent to surface. NASA is developing an advanced technology for lunar lenders that made them capable to land safely near resources located in potentially hazardous area.

Critical Sensor Technology

NASA’s Langely Research Center has developed two critical sensor technologies. One is a three-dimensional active imaging device that measures topography of a landing area. The second device measures speed to help land precisely at the chosen site.

Langely Research Center has designed two special purpose light detection and ranging sensors to make these two devices. In addition to this Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA is developing certain algorithms to analyze the terrain based upon these lidar measurements.

These technologies have been integrated as part of Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project of NASA. These technologies are in the phase of demonstration and testing in a series of flight tests.

Bob Reisse

Bob Reisse is leading the team at Langley Research Center which is designing the lidar sensors and supporting the demonstration flight tests.

They have conducted two demonstration flights and Reisse says, “We were pleased that the two flight tests we’ve conducted so far have resulted in better than expected performance of these sensors.”
Two Phases Of Demonstration Flights
First test that was carried out in May, was to The main objective of the first test, carried out in May, was to demonstrate the application of 3-D imaging technology or ‘flash’ lidar, for topography mapping and precision navigation.

Second demonstration in August was to of flight tests, completed in August, was to evaluate the capabilities of an emerging lidar technology developed at Langley. This lidar provides vehicle velocity vector, altitude and attitude with a very high degree of precision.


Lunar Lenders

Demonstration Test Procedures

In the recent demonstration test the velocimeter was carried aloft at Dryden Flight Research Center of NASA via helicopter which flew a total of six flights at various altitudes between targeted reference points.

During the demonstration tests, the helicopter flew over two target areas three miles (5 km) apart on the surface of Rogers Dry Lake. Repeated back-and-forth tracks were flown at altitudes incrementally increasing from about 300 feet to 6,200 feet (91m to 1,890m) above the lake bed while the lidar measured the relative speed, altitude, and attitude of the helicopter. Plywood circles placed on the lakebed served as reference targets for determining the ground “truth” measurements. The data was recorded on board and tagged with time and altitude information to allow post-flight processing.

Lidar Technology

Lidar Technology is much more advanced than today’s systems for planetary navigating tasks. Preliminary tests shows that this technology is about 10 times more powerful than conventional radar-based sensors that were used in Phoenix Mars Lenders, in accuracy of velocity readings and rate of updates.

This precision range and directional velocity data are critical in navigating lunar landing vehicles to the pre-selected site and achieving autonomous, safe soft-landing.

Future of Lunar Lenders

This new technology has a potential for or aiding crew exploration vehicle rendezvous and docking, and Earth reentry landing systems. This can highly impact the design of future lunar and other planetary landing missions.

Search Photos by their Content

Researchers of Penn State has developed a statistical approach called Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures in Real Time or ALIPR which can be a next major step insearching for pictures on Internet.

Technology Used By ALIPR

This technology teaches computers to recognize contents of pictures, such as peoples, landscapes, buildings, parks etc. opposite to the current technology of image-retrieval in which photographs are searched by keywords in the surrounding text such as ALT text. The researchers are hoping that soon this technology can be used for automatic tagging as a part of Internet search engine.

Jia Li – Associate Professor of Statistics at Penn State gives explanation about their approach.

The basic approach is a take a large number of photos (they have started with 60,000), and tag these photos with with a variety of keywords, manually. Let’s say, take 100 photos of national parks and tag them with keyword: National Parks, Landscape and Trees.

After that they would build a statistical model which will teach computers to recognize color and texture pattern in these 100 photographs and then assign these keywords to those pictures that seems to contain parks, landscapes and trees. Eventually the process will be reversed so that a internet surfer can use keywords to search the World Wide Web for relevant images.

Problem With Current Image Retrieval Systems

Most of the image-retrieval systems used today, search for keywords in the text associated with the photo or in the name that was given to the photo. But with this technique the surfer often misses appropriate photos and gets inappropriate images.

This new technique of Jia Li can train computers to recognize the semantics of images based on pixel information alone.

Keywords Approach and Accuracy

According to Jia Li- developer of ALIPR says that their approach appropriately assigns to photos at least one keyword among seven possible keywords about 90 percent of the time. But, the accuracy rate really depends on the evaluator. “It depends on how specific the evaluator expects the approach to be,” she said. “For example, ALIPR often distinguishes people from animals, but rarely distinguishes children from adults.”

Now the team is working on improving the accuracy of ALIPR, but according to Li it is not easy to achieve 100% accuracy. As there are so many images on Internet and they have so much variations that it is not possible for ALIPR to be 100% accurate each time.

Reasons for Inaccuracy

We can understand this by a simple example. Suppose in an image there is a Cat wearing a Red Coat…..then Red Coat will lead ALIPR to tag the photo with words irrelevant to the Cat. There is too much variations in the images that will cause problems for ALIPR. But Li is working on some new ideas to achieve better recognition of image sementics.

You Can Help ALIPR

Yes…. You can help ALIPR by participating in a survey and evaluate whether the keywords that ALIPR is using to describe the images are appropriate. Thus you can help in improving the accuracy of ALIPR. To participate in survey just click here: http://www.alipr.com

Virgin Birth by Shark

Scientist have found a case of a birth by a Shark
without having sex with male. This is the second ever case of Virgin Birth in a Shark. This has proved that female sharks have a capability by which they can reproduced without mating.

Team Of Scientist

The team of scientist that carried out this research consists of Dr. Demian Chapman , shark scientist with the Institute for Ocean Conservation Science at Stony Brook University, Beth Firchau, Curator of Fishes for the Virginia Aquarium & Marine Science Center, and Dr. Mahmood Shivji, Director of the Guy Harvey Research Institute and Professor at Nova Southeastern University in Florida.

They have proven that offspring of a female blacktip shark named Tidbit contained no genetic material in its DNA from a father. Tidbit is in Virginia Aquarium in Norfolk Canyon Aquarium for eight years since shortly after her birth in the wild.

First Reporting of Virgin Birth

Chapman and Shivji were a part of team that reported a virgin birth in a female shark in May 2007. That shark at Omaha, Nebraska zoo had not been in contact with male shark for atleast 3 years. This news captured global media and scientific attention, when it was published in journal Biology Letters.

Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis is the technique used for DNA fingerprinting in human paternity testing. The same technique was used to prove both cases of Virgin Birth in sharks.

Scientific Point of View

According to Chapman, “Sharks’ ability to reproduce alone should not be viewed as an adequate replacement for normal sexual reproduction”. The Blacktip and Hammerhead sharks that reproduced without mating both only produced one pup, rather than an entire litter. Shark litters normally contains few to more than a hundred shark pups, depending upon the species.
This case can’t stop us worrying from decreasing of shark population due to overfishing.

According to Chapman, “It is very unlikely that a small number of female survivors could build their numbers up very quickly by undergoing virgin birth.”


Shark Birth

How It Was Discovered?

Tidbit was an Atlantic blacktip shark who had just reached sexual maturity according to the biologists of Virginia Aquarium. Curators and biologists never observed her reproductive behavior or any signs of breeding in her. Unfortunately, Tidbit died due to some reasons and they did Autopsy (a necropsy for animal) on her as a usual procedure. During Autopsy they found that she was pregnant.

According to Firchau, “There were no male blacktips in the tank for the past eight years!”

Virgin Birth: Parthenogenesis

The phenomenon of “virgin birth” occurs when a baby is conceived without male sperm having first fertilized the female’s eggs. This phenomenon has been proven in some bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. The Parthenogenesis seen in these sharks is known as Automictic Parthenogenesis. In this type, the newly forming pup acquires one set of chromosomes when the mother’s chromosomes split during egg development. But instead of uniting with similarly split chromosomes from sperm, as occurs in sexual reproduction, the mother’s set is paired with a copy of itself. However this may results in offspring of reduced genetic diversity who may be at a disadvantage for surviving in the wild.

A Big Question

This phenomenon of Parthenogenesis in Blacktip sharks give rise to many questions. First of them is, “Is it possible that Parthogenesis would become more common in Sharks as females have trouble in finding mates?” As we all know that population of sharks have decreased in past 20 years due to overexploitation, mainly to supply the shark fin markets.

These two cases were revealed but actually there have been nearly a dozen reports of suspected virgin births in sharks in recent years. Scientists assumed that these cases were the result of long-term sperm storage by females after mating with males.

Chandrayaan - I: Proud for India

India’s first mission to the Moon: Chandrayaan-1 , was successfully launched the morning of October 22 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SHAR) in Sriharikota, India.

The spacecraft was launched into the orbit of earth by PSLV-C11 which is an upgraded version of the Indian Space Research Organization’s (ISRO’s) Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. The launch took place at 02:52 Central European Summer Time.


Chandrayaan

With this launch Chandrayaan-1 started its journey to the Moon, which will culminate with a major manoeuvre – the lunar orbit insertion – in about two weeks. Once the spacecraft is orbiting the Moon, further manoeuvres will progressively lower its altitude to the final 100 km-high circular orbit.

Mission of Chandrayaan-1

This spacecraft will eject the ‘Moon Impact Probe’ to provide information about the lunar surface. After that mission will be continued from orbit. The spacecraft is equipped with 11 scientific instruments for lunar surface study. Three of these 11 instruments were provided by Europe (UK, Germany, Sweden) through ESA.

The European instruments are:

The Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer (C1XS) for measuring abundance of magnesium, aluminium, silicon, iron and titanium over the surface of the Moon.

The Smart Near-Infrared Spectrometer (SIR-2) to explore the mineral resources of the Moon, the formation of its surface features and the different layers of the Moon’s crust.

The Sub-kiloelectronvolt Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA) to study the way the Moon’s surface interacts with the solar wind, and the surface’s magnetic anomalies.


Chandrayaan

Collaboration of India and Europe

Indo-European collaboration on space ventures is 30 years old when ESA and ISRO signed a cooperation agreement in 1978. In 1981, an Ariane 1 launcher carried India’s first geostationary satellite, Apple. So far, 13 of India’s INSAT satellites have flown on Europe’s Arianes.

Now with Chandrayaan-1 which is ISRO’s first mission beyond Earth orbit, marks the beginning of a new era of collaboration between ESA and ISRO in space science.

According to Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science and Robotic Exploration: “In an era of renewed interest for the Moon on a world-wide scale, the ESA-ISRO collaboration on Chandrayaan-1 is a new opportunity for Europe to expand its competence in lunar science while tightening the long-standing relationship with India – an ever stronger space power”.

This mission is a big success not only for ISRO but for whole India. This mission is a milestone in India’s space missions and now India is among those very few countries that have launched lunar missions in past.

Most Advanced Microscope of World

Canadian center for Electron Microscopy has developed a new powerful microscope that is world’s most powerful microscope till date. According to Gianluigi Botton, Director of Canadian center for Electron Microscopy, says that the power of this microscope can be thought as equivalent to “taking Hubble Telescope and aiming it at atomic level”.


Titan

Titan 80-300 Cubed

This powerful microscope named Titan 80-300 Cubed was installed at the University early in the summer, and since then it has been put through its paces to achieve unprecedented resolution.
This microscope is so powerful that it can easily identify atoms, measure their chemical state and even probe the electrons that bind them together.

According to vice-president of Mc Master, Mr. Elbestawi this microscope will make McMaster a hub for a fast growing field.

Really Impressive Microscope

A group of international scientists who visited McMaster were really impressed by the amazing capabilities of this microscope. This microscope can help scientist to discover new things in biological and physical sciencesDean of Engineering David Wilkinson sees the microscope through another lens.


Titan

Titan’s ability can probe structure of solid materials to the atomic level and this will have an amazing impact on development and commercialization of new technologies from biomedical devices to water quality monitoring and improved energy storage systems.


Titan

Cost of Microscope

This microscope has been build in Netherlands by FEI Company with a cost of about $15 million. This microscope can help to examine everyday products with its Nano details that can improve the efficiency of these products.

What This Microscope Can Do?

This microscope can be used to produce more efficient lighting and better solar cells, to study proteins and drug-delivery materials to target cancers. It will assess atmospheric particulates, and help create lighter and stronger automotive materials, more effective cosmetics, and higher density memory storage for faster electronic and telecommunication devices.

Funding

Funding for the microscope instrumentation was provided by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Ministry of Research and Innovation of Ontario and the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, through a partnership with FEI and McMaster University.

Proof of Life at Titan

In a recent invention it has been found that there is some electrical activity at TITAN, the largest moon of Saturn. After that research, it is a hot matter of discussion in scientific community, whether there is life on Saturn or not.


Titan: Moon Of Saturn

Previous Beliefs and researches

According to all previous beliefs. It is almost impossible for Life to sustain on Saturn due to its extremely low temperature that is -350 degrees Celsius.

Huygens Mission of NASA

In 2005 Huygens spacecraft was send to study the clouds on Titan. It was the first spacecraft to go there. As soon as Huygens entered in the environment of Titan, force of fast winds turned it to 30 degrees. After this accident, it was not possible for Huygens to find the electrical resonance on Saturn.

Study by Juan Antonio Morente

Prof Juan Antonio Morente of University of Granada, Spain studied data collected by Huygens and found that there are clues that there may be Natural Electrical Field on the surface of Titan. This energy is same as, which started chemical energy on Earth that ultimately lead to the starting of life.

Supported Reasons for this research


Cassini huygens spacecraft on Titan

It has been found out that the processes that started life on earth are possible at many places in Universe out of which Saturn is one. It has been confirmed that there is a big lake of hydrocarbons on Saturn. So after earth Saturn is the second place with so much liquid present openly. In these situation if lighting occurs at Saturn, then it may lead to the birth of Atoms, which are known as the starting phase of life.

Now it is possible to generate electrical energy while soldiers march

A new research in Leeds says that it can be possible now to capture Kinetic Energy that soldiers produce while marching and it can be converted to electrical energy.

This will help soldiers to reduce the weight of their bags up to 10 Kg. as they don’t require to carry batteries anymore to charge their electronic equipments.

The cost of this project is around $1.64 million which will be funded by Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC) and Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL).

Crows can also use up to three tools to solve a problem without any help

In an interesting study in Oxford University it has been found that New Caledonian crows can use upto 3 tools in correct sequence to achieve a goal or to solve any problem. It it a quality that has never been observed in any animal before.

This study shows that these birds have cognitive ability of planning and analogical reasoning which was never examined before to such level.

In normal situations these crows use a range of tools to extract prey from holes. In the experiment the crow under observation was found to be able to inventing new tool designs that are needed to complete the task.

In the experiment scientist observed 7 crows out of which 5 were able to complete the task in their very fist effort, while remaining four did it after trails.

Scientist Says: Titan's Surface is just like Earth's

Scientist has said that Titan’s surface resembles Earth’s very closely. Titan looks just like earth and none other body in this solar system resembles earth so much. It is another fact that temperature and other environmental conditions are totally different at Earth and Titan.

This fact has been revealed by a joint mission of NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens. They have observed details of young surface of Titan’s that shows some craters and mountain chains and even lakes.

Titan is the biggest moon in the solar system and is larger than mercury and nearly of size that of Mars. The lakes in moon are thought to be composed of liquid hydrocarbons like methane and ethane.

Titan has a surface temperature of around -180 °C and water cannot exist on Titan. On titan methane is found at water’s place in hydrological cycle of evaporation and precipitation.

There are some other researches that have reported volcanic activity on Titan, but these “cryovolcanoes” eject cold slurries of water-ice and ammonia. Cassini Instrument called VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) gathers infrared light from Sun that Titan surface reflect after passing it through it atmosphere. With these rays they are able to trace the chemical compounds on Titan’s Surface.

Scientist has also found an area called Hotei Regio, with the help of VIMS. This area shows the presence of ammonia frosts. Ammonia is present in interior region of Titan.

Titan has dunes formed by cold winds and mountain ranges also which resembles terrestrial features.

Hubble Catches Heavyweight Runaway Star

Hubble telescope has captured a heavy star from a nearby stellar nursery which is moving away at a speed of 4, 00,000 Km/h. This is the speed by which you can get to the moon and back in just 2 hours. This is an example of a massive star that has been pushed away from its home by its siblings.

These results came from observations of three observatories which includes newly installed Cosmic Origins Spectrograph of Hubble telescope. Currently the star have already travelled 375 light years from its home which is a giant star cluster named R136.

Currently that star is in outskirts of 30 Doradus Nebula which is also known as Tarantula Nebula. This is about 170000 light years from Earth.
According to Nolan Walborn (Space Scientist), these results are of great interest by scientific point of view as this is the first such observation in such region. Before this it was only in theory. Runaway stars can be made in a couple of ways. A star may encounter one or two heavier siblings in a massive, dense cluster and get booted out through a stellar game of pinball. Or, a star may get a “kick” from a supernova explosion in a binary system, with the more massive star exploding first.

Please Tell Me Your Views About This Lens

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  • Prabakar Jul 30, 2010 @ 3:32 am
    Really amazing.............
  • Thirumalesha Jul 29, 2010 @ 10:26 am
    This is very useful to know about what going on in technology
  • maha Jul 27, 2010 @ 8:02 am
    it is interesting to know all these
  • deepak yadav Jul 27, 2010 @ 6:20 am
    all the invention too good & soo much inspiring.thnx for this
  • deepak yadav Jul 27, 2010 @ 6:14 am
    thats very intresting & knowlegable , all the invention are too good .
    thnx for providing this.
  • Anuj Jul 24, 2010 @ 9:51 am
    awesome man you are a real science freak . I want your email id. Steve can you tell me more about that life on Titan and Vulture - Unmanned Aircraft . my email id is- anujgautam95@gmail.com
  • Divya Selvaraj Jul 24, 2010 @ 6:50 am
    I want to learn more about this and it's too intresting
  • siva Jul 24, 2010 @ 6:07 am
    its quite informative...... thanks for ur information>.......... good luck
  • Anoop Jul 23, 2010 @ 3:29 pm
    Ausome Stuff!!
  • guru Jul 23, 2010 @ 4:22 am
    its very useful who wants know abt d new tech.......really ts vry interstg

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